Ruby is red and is derived from the Latin word Rubeus, because of its red colour. Rubies range in colour from pink-crimson hues to dark red- brown colours.

Ruby is rare and is one of the most expensive gems, with large rubies being rarer than comparable diamonds.

Rubies are hard and measure 9 on Moh’s scale of hardness.

Ruby is unique and is also a member of the corundum group of minerals, as well are Sapphires. Trace elements in the corundum will affect the colour of the gem. The presence of chrome will result in the red hues of rubies.

Rubies are mined in various countries, with the most important deposits being in the Middle East, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.